The Crusades

The Crusades are a complex event that is usually reduced to a few facts in most source:  Christians took back Jerusalem, Richard the Lionhearted fought and was captured, somebody named Saladin fought, and in the end it all came out all right.  In reality, this is one of the most complex historical areas, involving as many as 50 nation-states as combatants, up to 500 years of history (depending on what you count as a “crusade”) several sects of two main religions (who each fought for different things) and difficult to obtain sources in many languages, including Arabic.

Week 4 Links

Dhimmi (Wikipedia) and Oxford University Material on Dhimmi

Jewish Virtual Library on Jews and the Crusades

CNN article about the True Cross

The 5th Crusade


Week 3 Links

Medieval foods
Catholic Encyclopedia on Pope Innocent III
Wikipedia on Pope Innocent III
The Cathars and Cathar Crusade
The Third Crusade – Richard and Saladin
The 13th Century (“Century of the Stirrup”)


Week 2 Links

Interactive map of the Crusades
The Rules of the Order of the Knights Templar
Documentary Podcast on the Knights Templar
Crusades and concept of “A Just War”

The Horrible Histories Channel

Tasty Treats?

We’ve all seen paleo diets and various diets based on what people of a certain time and region ate – but how accurate are they?  The answer is “probably not that accurate.”  Humans as foodies are actually opportunists and can (and will) eat just about anything imaginable.

To find out about what foods our ancestors ate, take a look at this useful website:

The Pterrible Ptolemys – Spring, 2015

Ptolemy II – Son of Ptolemy I (Sotor) by his second wife

Arsinoe II



The Reading list


This is not every book written by Egyptologists on Egypt — or even most of the books.  But these books are ones by authors who are recommended or suggested by my professors.

Some of them have papers that can be found in one of the largest online resources of free ebooks: the University of Memphis’ digital collection on Egyptology:


The List

Allen, J. P. 2005. The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Writings from the Ancient World. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. (This is a book that I have found very valuable when discussing pyramids and what we know about the pharaohs of that time)

Allen, J. P. 2000. Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Andrews, C. 1994. Amulets of Ancient Egypt. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Arnold, D. 2003. The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Assmann, J. 2001. The Search for God in Ancient Egypt. D. Lorton, transl. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Assmann, J. 2002. The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs. A. Jenkins, transl. New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt and Co.

Baines, J. and J. Málek 1980. Atlas of Ancient Egypt.

Bard, K. A. and S. B. Shubert, Eds. 1999. Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. London: Routledge.

Cohen, R. and R. Westbook, Eds. 2000. Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginning of International Relations. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Collier, M. and B. Manley 1998. How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs: A Step-by-Step Guide to Teach Yourself. London/Los Angeles/Berkeley: University of California Press. (This is my favorite book on hieroglyphs)

Dodson, A. and D. Hilton 2004. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames and Hudson

Faulkner, R. O. 1977. The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts. (3 Vols.) Warminster: Aris and Philips (This is one of the classic texts).

Faulkner, R. O. and C. Andrews 1985. The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead. Austin: University of Texas Press/British Museum

Fischer, H. G., Ed. 1977. Ancient Egypt in the Metropolitan Museum Journal. Volumes 1-11 (1968-1976). New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.(Some brilliant articles.)

Frankfort, H. 1978 (1948). Kingship and the Gods. A Study of Ancient Near Eastern Religion as the Integration of Society and Nature. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press.

Gardiner, A. H. 2005 (1957). Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. Third Ed., Revised. Oxford: Griffith Institute. (this is a textbook and is a bit intimidating to read but necessary if you want to learn hieroglyphs)

Grimal, N. 1992. A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Hart, G. 1986. A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. London: Routledge/Kegan Paul.

Hoffman, M. A. 1979. Egypt Before the Pharaohs: Prehistoric Foundations of Egyptian Civilization. London/New York: Routledge-KPI/Knopf.

Hornung, E. 1982. Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many. J. Baines, transl. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Hornung, E. 1999. The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. D. Lorton, transl. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Janssen, R. M. and J. J. Janssen 2007. Growing Up and Getting Old in Ancient Egypt. London: Golden House Publications.

Kemp, B. J. 1989. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. London: Routledge. (Often used as the textbook for introductory classes)

Lesko, L. H. 1972. The Ancient Egyptian Book of Two Ways. University of California Publications: Near Eastern Studies 17. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Michalowski, K. 1969. Art of Ancient Egypt. New York: Harry N. Abrams.

Oren, E., Ed. 1997. The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological Perspectives. University Museum Monograph 90/University Museum Symposium Series 8. Philadelphia: University Museum/University of Pennnsylvania

Pinch, Geraldine. Egyptian mythology: A guide to the gods, goddesses, and traditions of ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press, 2002.

Quirke, S. 1992. Ancient Egyptian Religion. London: British Museum Press.

Redford, D. B., Ed. 2002. The Ancient Gods Speak: A Guide to Egyptian Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ritner, R. K. 1993. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization (SAOC) 54. Chicago: Oriental Institute.

Robins, G. 1993. Women in Ancient Egypt. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Robins, G. 1994. Proportion and Style in Ancient Egyptian Art. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Robins, G. 1997. The Art of Ancient Egypt. London: British Museum Press.

Shafer, B. E., Ed. 1991. Religion in Ancient Egypt: Gods, Myths, and Personal Practice. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Shafer, B. E., Ed. 1997. Temples of Ancient Egypt. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Teeter, E. 2011. Religion and Ritual in Ancient Egypt. New York: Cambridge University Press. (A good and fast reference for ancient Egyptian religious practice.)

Tyldesley, J. 2000. Judgment of the Pharaoh: Crime and Punishment in Ancient Egypt. London: Phoenix. (A fascinating book!  I’m possibly a bit prejudiced, since she’s my professor.)

Tyldesley, Joyce. Daughters of Isis: women of ancient Egypt. Penguin Uk, 1995.
Tyldesley, Joyce. Cleopatra: last queen of Egypt. Profile Books, 2011.

Wilkinson, R. H. 1994. Symbol and Magic in Egyptian Art. London: Thames and Hudson.

Wilkinson, R. H. 2000. The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt. New York: Thames and Hudson.

Wilkinson, R. H. 2003. The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames and Hudson.

Wilkinson, Richard H., ed. Egyptology today. Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Ziegler, C., Ed. 2008. Queens of Egypt: From Hetepheres to Cleopatra. Monaco: Grimaldi Forum.